Vaccines are medicines that stimulate the immune system of the body to protect against foreign substances. The stimulated immune system destroys foreign bodies and remembers it. Vaccines work on this principle of memorizing foreign particle and prevent infection likely to be caused by this foreign particle when it invades again. Cancer vaccines are medicines categorized as biological response modifiers. These modifiers work by stimulating the immune system to fight against disease.
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Broadly, cancer vaccines are of two types: prevention vaccines and treatment vaccines. Preventive vaccines are used in healthy people to prevent cancer. Treatment vaccines are used in cancer patients to strengthen their natural immune response to fight the disease. Treatment vaccine is a type of immunotherapy. Preventive vaccines are available in the U.S. for human papillomavirus (HPV) and hepatitis B virus.
Treatment vaccine is available for metastatic prostate cancer. Cancer preventive vaccines are more like traditional vaccines that recognize the foreign particle and strengthen the immune system against it. Preventive vaccines function by targeting viruses including those producing cancer and activate the immune system against those viruses by producing antibodies. Furthermore, cancer treatment vaccines boost body’s natural immune system to fight against cancer cells. Cancer treatment vaccines are provided to destroy cancer cells left in the body following other treatments, stop further spreading of cancer, and prevent cancer from recurring. Cancer vaccines can be administered intravenously in children as well as adults.
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The World Health Organization reported around 14 million cases of cancer and 8.2 million cancer deaths in 2012. The most common forms among these were lung, colorectal, prostate, cervical, and breast cancers. Hence, demand for vaccines to prevent and treat cancers is high.
Many clinical trials are undergoing by NCI- supported cancer prevention or treatment for different types of cancer using vaccines. Increasing cancer patients, technological advancements, drug development in the field of cancer, government support, rising geriatric population, increasing health care services and expenditure, rising awareness in the incidences of cancer, and available therapies are the factors driving the cancer vaccines market. Low availability of cancer vaccines in remote areas and the need of cold storage and transportation are the factors hampering the growth of the cancer vaccines market.
The global cancer vaccines market has been segmented based on type of vaccine, application of vaccine, end-user, and region. In terms of type of vaccine, the market has been categorized into antigen vaccines, anti-idiotype vaccines, dendritic cell vaccines, whole cell vaccines, and DNA vaccines. Based on application of vaccines, the market has been segmented into preventive (or prophylactic) vaccines and treatment vaccines. Preventive vaccines approved in the U.S. are HPV and hepatitis B vaccines. Treatment vaccines can be of two types: autologous cancer vaccines (derived from oneself) and allogenic cancer vaccines (made from non-cancer cells of one’s own body). In terms of end-user, the cancer vaccines market has been divided into adults and children.
Geographically, the cancer vaccines market has been segmented into North America, Latin America, Europe, Asia Pacific, and Middle East & Africa. North America dominates the market owing to major market share of the U.S. However, the market in Asia Pacific is expected to expand at the highest CAGR during the forecast period due to rising government initiatives, increased focus of players on the vaccine technology market in India, and rising immunization initiatives by the World Health Organization and GAVI.
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The global cancer vaccines market is dominated by key players such as AstraZeneca plc, Prima Sanofi, BioMed, GlaxoSmithKline, Merck, Aduro BioTech, OncoThyreon, and Oxford BioMedica.